All Makkans were against the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). They wished to assassinate him but could not do so. There were two reasons for this. The Quraysh were divided into ten different families. The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) belonged to the family of Hashim. If the rest of the nine families of the tribe tried to assassinate him, then they would have to pay the blood-money to the Hashimite family. The Quraysh used to say "if he (Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)) had not been supported by his family, he would have been pelted to death".

The Quraysh had attacked the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) twice but could not hurt him. This was because of the support of two strong personalities of Makkah who had embraced Islam. The circumstances of these conversions are described in the text which follows:

One day some people, at the provocation of Abu Jahal, were pelting stones at the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). A woman watching the incident, went to one of the Prophet’s (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) uncle, HamzahR.A. She addressed HamzahR.A and said, "O HamzahR.A, how could your sense of honour allow your nephew to be so tortured. Why do not you help him"? HamzahR.A was a renowned wrestler and lion hunter. He till that day had no interest in Islam. He had heard of it as being contrary to his ancestral beliefs. When he heard about the incident, his expression changed. He asked her about the insulting. When the women repeated some of those remarks, HamzahR.A became infuriated. For the Arabs, abusing one’s relatives was an unforgivable offence. Secondly, abusive language towards one person was taken as if the whole tribe had been targeted.

HamzahR.A picked up his sword and went to Abu Jahal’s house. He violently upbraided him for his derogate treatment to his nephew. He also challenged him to do whatever he could to stop him as he was also going to become a Muslim.

After HamzahR.A embraced Islam, the Muslims began to assemble at a house located at Mount Safa. The house was facing the Holy Ka’bah. When they prayed, few Muslims kept their swords with them for defence from attack by the Quraysh.

The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) expected strict discipline from the Muslims particularly for prayers. No excuse was admissible unless one was so ill that he could neither sit nor stand.

The number of converts to Islam soon rose to thirty. Angry and troubled to learn about the spread of Islam, the Makkans assembled in ‘Daar-al-Nadwah’(their parliament) to curb the spread of Islam.

Among the assembly of the Makkans was a person named UmarR.A. When the meeting adjourned, he announced that he would get rid of this ‘trouble’ by eliminating the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). UmarR.A was a valiant and a strong - willed man. He was the tallest man in Makkah. He was true to his words and had a fiery disposition. When UmarR.A took this oath, it was the year 614 AD. That day, the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and his followers were in the house at Mount Safa. UmarR.A went to his house, picked up his sword and headed towards the Mount. On the way, he met Naeem bin Abdullah who had become Muslim but had not yet announced it. Naeem bin Abdullah asked UmarR.A that where he was headed. UmarR.A replied in a booming voice, "O Naeem, I cannot recall anyone insulting our ancestors as Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is doing. The greatest of our enemies dare not humiliate us. This person has shattered the peace of Makkans by his new religion. He criticises our ancestors by rejecting the religion of our forefathers. He wants us to stop worshipping our Gods. We have been tolerant enough as he is among the Quraysh, but he has tried our patience long enough and I am going to take his life and relieve the Makkans of this mischief-maker forever".

After saying this he proceeded towards the Mount Safa. Naeem bin Abdullah knew very well that UmarR.A would do as he said. He also knew that he had good ears for reasoning. He was an honest man and not of a stubborn disposition. Naeem ran to stop him and said, "O UmarR.A, stop; I need to talk to you".

When UmarR.A stopped to listen, Naeem said, "You complain that Muhammad’s (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) religion has anguished the Makkans, but before you care for them take care of your house".

Quite surprised UmarR.A asked Naeem what he meant. Naeem told him that his sister Fatima and her husband Saeed bin ZaydR.A had converted to Islam. He should therefore take care of them first. When UmarR.A heard this news, he straightway returned to his house.

When UmarR.A entered his house, he saw his sister, his brother-in-law and another person named Khabab reciting Holy Quranic verses. UmarR.A became very angry. He started whip-lashing his sister. He tried to compel her to revoke Islam. She replied by saying that even if he whipped her to death, she would not revoke Islam. She added that if he would recite the words of the Holy Qur’an, he himself would testify to its truth.

There was a poor confederate of Zuhrah named Khabab who often came to recite the Holy Qur’an to Said and Fatima, and he was with them at that moment with some written pages of the Surah named ‘Ta-Ha’. UmarR.A had heard the sound of their reading. He said to his sister, "Give me that script I heard you reading. I may see what it is that Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) hath brought". Like them, UmarR.A could also read; when he asked for the script she said. "We fear to trust thee with it". "Fear not", he said, and, unbuckling his sword-belt and laying down his sword, he swore by his gods that he would give it back when he had read it. "O my brother," she said, "thou are impure in thine idolatry, and only the pure may touch it". There upon UmarR.A went out and washed himself. She gave him the page on which was written the opening of Surah Ta-Ha. He began to read it, and when he had completed a passage he said: "How beautiful and how noble are these words! When Khabab heard this he came out from his hiding-place and said: "Umar, I am sure Allah hath chosen thee through the prayer of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)". UmarR.A asked him where the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was. He told him that he was at the house of Arqam near the Safa Gate with many of his companions.

When UmarR.A listened to Quranic verses he was so impressed that he kissed his sister’s forehead and asked her to forgive him. He then showed them his intention to become Muslim at that very moment. The three of them accompanied UmarR.A to the Mount Safa. When the Muslims saw him coming, they thought he was coming there to kill them. UmarR.A consoled them and stated the purpose of his visit. He was the fortieth person to enter Islam. His conversion to Islam was a source of great comfort and relief for the Muslims and this is marked as a vitally important incident of the early Islamic period.

There was no question of UmarR.A keeping his Islam secret. He wished to tell everyone, in particular those who were most hostile to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). In later years he used to say, "The next morning I went and knocked at Abu Jahal’s door, he came out and said, "The best of welcomes to my sister’s son! What hath brought thee here?" I answered, "I came to tell thee that I believe in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and I testify to the truth of that which he hath brought".

Umar bin Khatab was among the most influential people in Makkah. His voice like his build was strong and impressive. It is said, he could be heard even from a distance of a thousand strides.

Unlike the other Arabs UmarR.A did not indulge himself in the prevalent evils of the society and like a real Arab he showed thriftiness in hunger. He was tall and robust person. He became a great Muslim leader and contented himself with only five morsels of every meal. When he was holding the office of Caliphate, he worked days and nights without showing any signs of fatigue. He never spared a culprit or allowed him any concessions. He never punished any innocent person either. He was caliph for ten years and within this short span of time, conquered the three great and powerful Empires of Iran, Egypt and Syria. Till his last day he used to sit on a mat spread on the earth and ate only five morsels of food.

When UmarR.A entered Islam, he led the Muslims for the first time to say their prayers openly in the Holy Ka’bah. The Muslims as a procession passed through the streets and markets of Makkah and offered prayers in Holy Ka’bah.

Abu Jahal, Abu Sufyan, Abu Lahab and other eminent men of the Quraysh were present outside Holy Ka’bah when they saw Muslims praying but they dared not to attack them. After the prayers when the Muslims came out of Holy Ka’bah, UmarR.A addressed the people of Quraysh and challenged them, "If you have any differences with the Muslims, come to me as I have entered Islam from today".

They were so afraid of him that no one had the courage to oppose him. The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and the other Muslims were able to return to their homes without fear. UmarR.A bin Khatab accompanied the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) to his house that day and nobody could dare pass any derogatory remarks or throw stones at him as they had previously done.

When the Quraysh saw that UmarR.A had entered Islam. They assembled again and agreed to go to the Prophet’s (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) uncle Abu Talib and ask him to banish Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) from his tribe. If that occurred, they could assassinate him without blame or fear of retribution. The only obstacle in this way had been the Prophet’s (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) relationship with the Hashimite family. They decided to send someone to the Chief of the Banu Hashimite clan, who would plead for the banishment of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and suggest replacing him with one or two people from any other tribe.

Such a suggestion would not be regarded with surprise. Before Islam, there was no idea of death penalty for a murder. When someone was murdered, the murderer had no feelings of guilt or shame. People did not consider it a crime and hence to murder someone was not a sin. The idea of reward or punishment after death came with Islam. In pre-Islamic days a Bedouin never repented or felt ashamed. If he had killed ten people together he was not considered guilty by the other tribes or Arabs. Human life was considered a commodity. The murderer had no guilt or responsibility when he had paid blood-money to the people of the victim. Sometimes it also happened that in place of paying the blood-money any person of the murderer’s tribe was transferred to the tribe of the victim to strike a balance for the decrease in number. The Quraysh had suggested replacing Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) with a man of another tribe to get rid of him, but this suggestion was not rewarded.