An Arab had no individual responsibilities. If an Arab murdered any one, the tribe of the murdered would revenge his death not from the individual but the whole tribe. A tribe and not the individual concerned had to face all the consequences.

When the Bedouins became dwellers of the city of Makkah, such methods of revenge became invalid. There was neither police nor court in Makkah. Every tribe settled its accounts that never trespassed the tribal limits. However, if there was any intrusion from outside, all Quraysh tribes would form an alliance, against their common enemy. If any Bedouin was offended in Makkah, he could only have his tribal members to avenge his woe for him. Whenever that tribe reached Makkah, it would find itself facing ten tribes. That was the reason an outsider, when wronged in Makkah, was helpless to get justice and take revenge.

An Arab historian "Saheeli" writes that once an Arab came to Makkah with his young daughter, to buy some merchandise from Ukaz market. A rich Makkan merchant had her abducted. The poor father had no choice but to get back to the desert to fetch his tribe to help him to liberate his daughter. The abductor was aware that her tribesmen were helpless as their number was too small to face him, therefore he refused to return the daughter. When Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) came to know about the incident, he asked the youth of the Quraysh to join against such barbarism in Makkah. Some volunteers who favoured the victim, gathered in Makkah and took oath, "We swear to support the wronged to the extent so as to compel the oppressor to repay his right. We also swear to do this irrespective of any greed and whether the aggrieved is rich or poor". Having decided, after an earnest discussion, that it was imperative to find an order of chivalry for the furtherance of justice and the protection of the weak, they went in a body to the Holy Ka’bah where they poured water over the Black Stone and let it flow into a receptacle. Each man drank this water and with their right hands raised above their heads they vowed that henceforth, at every act of oppression in Makkah, they would stand together as one man on the side of the oppressed against the oppressor until justice was done, whether the oppressed was a man of Quraysh or one who had come from abroad.

The chief of Taym, Zubayr of Hashim and his nephew Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) were the founders of this order. Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) took part in the oath and said in after-years: "I was present in the house of Abdullah Ibn Jud’an at so excellent a pact that I would not exchange my part in it. I would gladly respond to any call and help". Another of those present was their host’s first cousin, Abu Quhafah of Taym, together with his son Abu BakrR.A, who was three years older than Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and who was to become his closest friend.

The formation of this voluntary organisation marked the beginning of the first human rights organisation. Its name ‘The League of the Just’ was very befitting of its objectives.

Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) along with other members of the League of the Just went to the merchant who had kidnapped the girl. They surrounded his house and demanded immediate release of the girl to her father. The merchant asked for one night’s respite that was not granted. He was forced to free the girl at the very moment.

Once ‘Abu Jahal’ bought some merchandise from a stranger but did not pay him. The stranger was not aware of the existence of ‘Half-al-Fudhul’ or League of the Just. He, in despair, returned home as his tribe was helpless against the unity of the ten Quraysh tribes. When Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) found out about this, he went to Abu Jahal and compelled him to pay for the merchandise, which he did.

Later, whenever any stranger was wronged in Makkah, he sought the help of the volunteers of ‘Hilf-al-Fudhul’. Afterwards, the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) used to say that he had always felt much pleasure and exaltation while taking part in the activities of this organisation.

The formation of this organisation before Muhammad’s (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) Prophethood bears considerable significance. This league had brought a revolution in the Arabian system of justice and shaken the idea of tribal revenge.

In Arabia one could not even think of the accountability of an oppressor. The aggrieved could only have justice if he had a strong tribe or his tribesmen could charge ransom. Otherwise the grieved had to forego his rights. The society of that period had become used to such injustice.

The formation of ‘Half-al-Fudhul’ or the league of the Just by Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) teaches all human beings to always support the aggrieved against the oppressor, whether he has a weak tribe or no one to die for him. It is astonishing to note that the United Nations Charter for human rights was framed after it came into existence in 1948 i.e. nearly 1400 years after the first charter of League of the Just was written and signed by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace).