Ablution or Wudu is the act of washing those parts of the body, which are generally exposed and private unexposed parts and are therefore unclean.
It is performed in the following manner:
Make sure that the water with which you perform Ablution is pure, clean and fresh (not used before) its colour, taste and smell are unchanged.
Have the full intention of performing the Ablution for offering Salaat.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful
Start the procedure by declaring "In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful" with the belief and power of these divine words, Allah who has built in water the quality to get rid of impurity, will clean your body. Repeat this declaration while washing every part of your body.
Wash excreta and urine from private parts thoroughly after using toilet when necessary.
Wash hands up to the wrists three times, passing the fingers in between each other.
Then clean mouth with brush or finger and gargle with water three times.
Rinse the nostrils thrice with water. Each time take in water up to nose bone with right hand palm full. Blow out water through the nose; use left hand for cleaning out expectoration each time.
Wash the face from the forehead to the chin bone and from ear to ear three times. Use wet fingers through the beard to wet the face-skin.
Wash the right arm followed by the left up to the elbows three times.
Take the cap off. Brush up the whole head with wet hands, pass the wet tips of the index finger inside and the wet tips of the thumb outside the ears, and pass over the outer surface of the backs of hands over the nape and the sides of the neck.
Wash the feet up to the ankles, the right foot first and then the left, taking care to wash in between the toes, each three times. Use only left hand to wash both the feet. Use little finger of left hand. Start from right small toe and work between toes up to the right toe thumb. Then from left toe thumb between toes with left-hand clean up to left small toe last. Make sure no part of any foot remains dry.
Obligatory Acts in the Performance of Ablution
The Obligatory Acts in the performance of Ablution are four.
Water for Ablution
If the water to be used for Ablution is stagnant, one should make sure that the cistern measures ten meters by ten meters by 30cm and is full of water.
If a person wears impermeable footwear after the performance of the Ablution, it is not necessary to remove it for a fresh Ablution. One may just pass over it wet fingers as if one were tracing lines on it. Travellers can take advantage of this concession for three days and three nights, others for one day and one night. (Travellers are those covering 48 miles (80 km) in one day away from home).
The obligatory conditions that must be fulfilled for a valid performance of an obligatory Bath are:
Tayammum (dry Ablution and bath)
When a person is sick or access to water is not possible. One may perform what is called Tayammum in place of Ablution and bath.
The essential requisites for the performance of Tayammum are as under:
Acts which make the Ablution Void
The same occurrences nullify Tayammum also, but in addition Tayammum is nullified as soon as the cause for performing it is removed, i.e., if the sick person recovers, and access to water becomes possible. Fresh Tayammum should be performed for every Salaat.
Three acts, which are forbidden without the performance of Ablution or Tayammum, are:
Cover of Man/Woman
Satar means to cover that part of the human body, which is compulsory. The Satar of a man is to cover his body from the navel to below the knees.
The Satar of a woman is her entire body from head to feet excepting the face and the hands. Hands should be well covered so those hairs are not visible at all.
Before commencing Salaat, it is compulsory to have ones Satar covered.
Istiqbale Qiblah (to face Holy Kaaba)
Istiqbale Qiblah means to face the direction in which the Holy Kaaba is located. The Namazi must face the Qiblah when performing Salaat.
The Namazi must make the Intention in the mind of the particular Salaat about to be performed.
The performance of Salaat five times daily is obligatory (Fardh) at proper time upon all adult Muslims - male and female. The Five compulsory Salaat are:
1. Fajar (morning), 2. Zuhr (early afternoon), 3. Asr (late afternoon), 4. Maghrib (evening), 5. Ishaa (night).