Time for Fajar (morning) Salaat

The time for Fajar Salaat commences with the appearance of horizontal glow on the eastern horizon. This time is marked by the appearance of the horizontal glow and is known as Fajar-e-Awwal or Subh Sadiq (True Dawn). The time for Fajar Salaat lasts until before sunrise (before first sun beams). It is forbidden to pray during the sunrise.


Time for Zuhr (early afternoon) Salaat

The time for Zuhr Salaat begins immediately after Zawal or mid-day. The time of mid-day or Zawal is calculated by dividing the hours of day light by two, and adding the result to the time of sunrise, e.g.:

  1. Example:

Sunrise

6.30 a.m.

Sunset

5.30 p.m.

Number of daylight hour’s

11 hours

Divide by two

5 hours

Add to sunrise time 6.30+5.30

12.00 hours

Zawal is at 12.20 p.m.

 

Generally it is between 11-50 to 12-15 throughout the year. It is forbidden to perform Salaat at the time of Zawal. After approximately five minutes (five minutes after Zawal Zuhr time commences.

The time for Zuhr Salaat lasts until the length of the shadow of an object becomes twice the size of the object.


Time for Asr (late afternoon) Salaat

Asr time begins immediately upon the expiry of Zuhr time, and lasts until sunset. However, it is Makrooh (reprehensible) to delay the performance of Asr Salaat until the sun’s rays become yellowish and dim as is the case before sunset.


Time for Maghrib (evening) Salaat

Immediately after sunset the time for Maghrib Salaat commences, and it lasts until the white glow of twilight remains.


Time for Ishaa (night) Salaat

The time for Ishaa Salaat begins immediately after expiry of the time of Maghrib i.e. immediately after the white glow of twilight disappears. Ishaa time lasts until Fajar-e-Awwal or Subh Sadiq (true dawn). The moment Fajar-e-Awwal enters, Ishaa’s time expires.


Number of Raka’ats of Five Daily Salaat

Fajar Salaat has a total of four Raka’ats (4) composed as follow:

Sunnate Muaq Qad’ah

2

Fardh

2

Zuhr Salaat has twelve Raka’ats (12) as follows:

Sunnate Muaq Qad’ah

4

Fardh

4

Sunnate Muaq Qad’ah

2

Nafil

2

Asr Salaat has eight Raka’ats (8) as follows:

Sunnate Ghair Muaq Qad’ah

4

Fardh

4

Maghrib Salaat has seven Raka’ats (7) as follows:

Fardh

3

Sunnate Muaq Qad’ah

2

Nafil

2

Ishaa Salaat has seventeen Raka’ats (17) as follows:

Sunnate-Ghair-Muaq Qad’ah

4

Fardh

4

Sunnate Muaq Qad’ah

2

Witr

3

Nafil

2


Forbidden Times of Salaat

It is not permissible to perform any Salaat whatsoever at the following times:

  1. During sunrise
  2. At Mid-day (Zawal)
  3. During sunset
  4. Before sunset when the sun’s rays lose their heat and become yellowish
  5. When the Imam is delivering the Friday or Eid Khutba
  6. No Salaat can be performed during this time except the Asr Salaat of that day if it has not yet been performed

It is not permissible to delay the performance of Asr Salaat until this time. However, if Asr Salaat was not yet performed then it has to be performed even in this Makrooh (reprehensible) time.

It is not permissible to perform any Sunnat or Nafil Salaat after the Fardh of Asr has been fulfilled. Qad’ah Salaat, however, may be performed after the Fardh of Asr.

During the time of Fajar Salaat it is not permissible to perform any Nafil Salaat.

Qad’ah Salaat may be performed during the Fajar time.

If one performs the Fardh of Fajar without first performing the Sunnat of Fajar, it is not permissible to make the Sunnat after the Fardh of Fajar. The Namazi will have to wait until after sunrise in order to perform the Sunnat of Fajar, which was missed.

While performing Fajar Salaat, if the sun rises, the Salaat is not valid and will have to be repeated as Qad’ah. However, if the sun sets while Asr Salaat is being performed, it (Asr Salaat) will be valid.

During summer it is Mustahab (preferable) to perform Zuhr Salaat a considerable time after midday, and during winter it is Mustahab to perform Zuhr Salaat soon after midday.

It is Mustahab to perform Fajar Salaat when a little bit of dawn lights starts to appear on the sky.

It is Mustahab to perform Ishaa Salaat just before one-third of the night has passed.


Divine Laws - Technical Terms

There are eight classes of Divine Laws regarding the deeds and actions of man:

  1. Fardh
  2. Wajib
  3. Sunnat
  4. Mustahab
  5. Haraam
  6. Makrooh Tehrimi;
  7. Makrooh Tanzihi
  8. Mubaah

Fardh

Fardh is a Divine command, which is established by such proof known as Daleel Qat-i (Absolute Proof). One who neglects a Fardh injunction without any valid Islamic excuse is termed by the Shariah as a Faasiq.

One who rejects a Fardh injunction is termed a Kafir and is beyond the pale of Islam.

Fardh is subdivided into two classes:

  1. Fardh Ain
  2. Fardh Kifaayah.

Wajib

Wajib is a Divine command established by proof known as Daleel Zanni (such proof which although very strong, but of a lower category than Daleel Qat-i). One who neglects or rejects a Wajib injunction is termed a Faasiq.

Sunnat

Sunnat refers to such deeds as practised by the Holy Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) or his Companions. Sunnat is divided into two classes:

  1. Sunnatul Muaq Qad’ah;
  2. Sunnate Ghair Muaq Qad’ah.

Mustahab (rewarded)

Mustahab is an act which the Holy Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and his Companions performed occasionally. One who fulfils a Mustahab deserves Reward. There is no sin in not doing it.

Haraam (totally forbidden by Allah)

Haraam refers to a prohibition, which is established by proof known as Daleel Qat-i (Absolute Proof). The perpetrator of Haraam is termed a Faasiq and the one who rejects a Haraam becomes a Kafir.

Makrooh Tehrimi (forbidden by argument)

Makrooh Tehrimi is a prohibition established by proof known as Daleel Zanni (such proof which although very strong, is of a lower category than Daleel Qat-i). One who commits Makrooh Tehrimi is a Faasiq, and the one who rejects it is also a Faasiq.

Makrooh Tanzihi (appropriate prohibition)

Makrooh Tanzihi refers to such an act which if not done will warrant Reward, and if done then it will not be a punishable offence. However, committing Makrooh-Tanzihi constantly becomes a punishable offence.

Mubaah (just permissible)

Mubaah is an act which if done does not warrant Reward, and if done then it will not be a punishable offence. In other words it is an act, which is merely permissible.